GCSE 23 - Psychological problems

Paper 2 : Psychology [AQA: GCSE]

AQA Specification:

The difference between addiction/dependence and substance misuse/abuse. The use of International Classification of Diseases in diagnosing addiction (dependence syndrome), including a strong desire to use substance(s) despite harmful consequences, difficulty in controlling use, a higher priority given to the substance(s) than to other activities or obligations

Biological explanation (influence of nature): hereditary factors/genetic vulnerability. Kaij’s twin study of alcohol abuse. Psychological explanation (influence of nurture): Peer influence. Aversion therapy. Self-management programmes, eg self-help groups, 12 step recovery programmes. How these improve mental health, reductionist and holistic perspectives. 

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